Writing an essay памятка

Writing an essay

Language support

I. Introduction — General statement of the problem/current situation


a reference to an imaginary scene or situation

addressing the reader directly

rhetorical questions

a quotation

Useful phrases:

It is true…

Some people say/believe…

Other people, however, disagree/ have a different point of view

II. Arguments for

Useful phrases:

the first/ main/ most important advantage of…

one/ another/ an additional advantage of…

one point of view in favour of…

III. Arguments against

Useful phrases:

the main/ most important disadvantage/ drawback of…

one/ another/ an additional disadvantage/ negative effect of…

one point/ argument against… 

To list and add points:

firstly/ in the first place/ to start/ to begin with…;

secondly/ in addition/ furthermore/ moreover/ besides…;

thirdly/ finally;

To introduce examples/ reasons/ results

For example/ instance

Such as


In particular


For this reason

IV. Conclusion – our opinion and/ or a balanced summary of the topic


state a personal opinion

give the reader something to consider

use a quotation or rhetorical question

Useful phrases:

In conclusion

To conclude/ sum up

All in all



All things considered

Taking everything into account/ consideration

Do not include opinion words in the introduction or the main body of compositions, reports and articles

See also: