рекомендации по написанию эссе к ЕГЭ и ГИА по английскому языку
Написание сочинения по английскому языку
В задании С2 в ЕГЭ по английскому языку необходимо написать сочинение с элементами рассуждения по данному высказыванию. Выполнить это задание не так уж и сложно, особенно если вы будете придерживаться представленных ниже советов. Используйте формальный стиль письма: ● не используйте сокращения (don’t, can’t, I’m, it’s), ● не используйте скобки или восклицательные знаки — это свойственно неформальному стилю письма; ● не начинайте предложения со слов and, but или also; в разговорном языке вы можете их использовать, но избегайте этого в сочинении; ● не употребляйте вводные слова, характерные для неформального стиля (well, to tell the truth и др.); ● избегайте слишком простых предложений; объединяйте их в сложные, используя логические средства связи. Разделите текст на смысловые абзацы в соответствии с предложенным в задании планом. 1. В первом абзаце сформулируйте проблему, которую вы будете обсуждать, однако не повторяйте тему сочинения слово в слово. Представьте, что ваш читатель не знает, о чем пойдет речь, и попытайтесь объяснить ему проблему другими словами. 2. Выделите положительные и отрицательные стороны проблемы, подумайте о разумных аргументах, в поддержку обеих точек зрения. Помните, что вы должны выразить не только свою точку зрения, но и противоположную. Также не забудьте объяснить, почему вы не согласны с другой точкой зрения. Старайтесь соблюдать баланс между абзацами. 3. Используйте слова-связки, чтобы помочь читателю проследить за логикой ваших рассуждений. Помните, что вводные слова выделяются запятыми. 4. В последнем абзаце сделайте обобщающий вывод по данной проблеме. Вы можете также окончательно сформулировать свое мнение или предложить пути решения данной проблемы. Объем сочинения должен составлять 200-250 слов. При этом артикль — это тоже слово, поэтому не слишком увлекайтесь с развитием идей, постарайтесь удержаться в заданных рамках.
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Выражения мнения: • I agree/ disagree • In my opinion, … / From my point of view, … / As far as I am concerned, … • I believe that…/ It seems to me that… • I am in favour of… / I am against the idea of… • According to… • Some people say that… • It is said/believed that… • There is no doubt that… • It cannot be denied that… • It goes without saying that… • We must admit that… Представление аргументов: • The main argument against/in favour is… • First of all, I would like to consider… • The first thing I would like to consider is… • To begin with, …/ To start with, … • Despite the fact that…/ In spite of the fact that… • On the one hand, … /On the other hand, … • Besides,…/ In addition,… • What is more, …/ Moreover, …/ More than that, … • Finally, … • However, … / …, though • …although… • Nevertheless,… Логические связки: • for this reason • therefore/that is why • thus sth happened because of/as a result of/owing to/due to/as a consequence of Примеры: • For example • For instance • Such as • Like Заключение: • To sum up, … • To conclude, I would argue that… • On this basis, I can conclude that… • In conclusion, I would like to stress that… • All in all, I believe that… Ниже вы можете ознакомиться с готовыми сочинениями.
There is no doubt that the invention of the car completely changed the way people thought about travelling causing the development of many other means of transport. However, the draw-backs of cars make people think that we should stop using them. In my opinion, cars are necessary in today’s world. To begin with, they help us transport goods to places that cannot be reached by other means of transport. In addition, cars are the main way of transportation for people who live far from their workplaces, especially now when public transport is frequently lacking. It is even more difficult to use public transport if you have children with you or heavy goods to carry. Finally, cars are the best way of travelling because you need not buy tickets and you can stop wherever you like. Nevertheless, cars are often criticized because they cause air pollution. Another argument against using cars is that people are turning into legless creatures and inactivity leads to serious diseases. I cannot agree with these views because nowadays all cars are to be equipped with special control systems to reduce their exhaust fumes and new environmentally friendly cars are being developed. Moreover, with cars, people have better opportunities to reach sports facilities and therefore spend more time doing sports. To sum up, I would argue that although cars have certain disadvantages people would not be able to survive without them. However, I believe that we should improve cars to lower their harmful influence on people’s health.
Does one’s success depend on the amount of money a person earns? This question has always worried people and the answer to it is not simple. In my opinion, being rich does not necessarily mean that you are successful. First of all, if you only work for money, you will not get satisfaction from your job. What is more, while making your fortune, you may not have enough time for your family so you are bound to have problems in family relationship. Finally, lots of money can worsen your character because rich people are often greedy and arrogant so you are unlikely to have any true friends. Unfortunately, most people view success in terms of money. They believe money will bring happiness because they will be able to buy luxurious things, travel around the world and realize their dreams. However, there are a lot of millionaires with personal problems and they are often very unhappy. You can buy houses and cars but money will not help you to buy love, friendship and good health, which are the most valuable things in life. What is more, being wealthy is often a powerful predictor that people spend less time doing pleasurable things and therefore feel stressed. In conclusion, I would argue that being rich is not the only way of being successful in life. From my point of view, it is more important to have an interesting job, good friends and a happy family. Other people make you happy, not money!
People have always been intrigued of what the future will look like. That is why there are a lot of futuristic books and films, both optimistic and pessimistic. But what does the real future holds for us? Will life in the future be better, worse or the same as now? As for me, I am optimistic about the future. We have already seen major technological advances over the last fifty years and the next fifty years are going to be equally exciting. For example, in fifty years’ time scientists will have created robots that will be doing all dangerous and difficult jobs. In addition, medicine technology will have conquered many diseases including AIDS and cancer. As for entertainment, I believe we will get it from the Internet and television will probably disappear. However, some people feel pessimistic about our future. They worry about the activity of terrorists and the possibility of nuclear wars. Another problem is our environment, which is in a sorry state. I am sure that people will be able control their weapons because everybody understands what disastrous consequences nuclear wars may have. We will also take care of our environment and in the future people will drive petrol-free cars, drink purified water and recycle their rubbish. To sum up, I believe that we will finally solve all our problems and will live happily. History shows that people can make the right choices. That’s a good reason to be optimistic about science and humanity.
What people wear says a lot about who they are and what they do. It is not surprising that teenagers are so concerned about their clothes. However, their parents think that following fashion is a waste of time. From my point of view, it is important to look smart and attractive. We cannot go through life with the same hairstyle or make-up. I believe it is also necessary for teenagers to follow fashion. When you are up with fashion, you feel confident. Nevertheless, I feel that looking clean and tidy is even more important than looking stylish. What is more, everyone should find their own style to express their individuality. I hate when people dress alike. As for me, I prefer hand-made or designer clothes and try to look stylish. Many adults do not understand why teens spend so much time and money on their clothes. Moreover, they are often quite old-fashioned and do not accept modern trends in clothing. They say that fashion comes and goes but classical style remains: I cannot agree with them because teenage fashion is quite specific. Nobody likes to dress in styles that are too old for them, and it is no fun being teased because of it. In conclusion, I would argue that modern lifestyle forces us to look stylish because people judge us by our clothes. It is especially important in business where your look can actually make or lose you money. Therefore I think we should learn how to look nice.
People have various preferences so it is natural that school students want to study the subjects they are interested in. Yet many teachers are against this, arguing that students must learn all subjects equally. In my opinion, students should be allowed to choose the subjects they want to study because in this case they will probably be more enthusiastic about their school work. In addition, if students are forced to study all subjects obligatorily, they can easily lose interest in education. What is more, if all subjects are compulsory for studying, students will not have enough time to learn all of them properly therefore they will be constantly under a lot of pressure. On the other hand, most teachers believe their subject is of great importance and they will not let it be optional. Moreover, teachers claim that students must be well rounded so they need to study all subjects equally. I am afraid, however, that when we learn a variety of subjects, we get very poor knowledge and we are not able to get an idea of what our interests are. Besides, some subjects can be of no use for us in the future and we will forget everything we learned at school. In conclusion, I strongly believe that being free to choose what to study is an effective form of education. Nevertheless, I must admit that we should not completely reject all the other subjects. Instead, teachers must find an easier form of teaching them.
Genetically modified crops have made a big splash in the news lately. For example, in Honduras farmers are encouraged to produce genetically modified (GM) crops although many people dispute about harmful effects of genetic technologies. On the one hand, genetic technology is one of the best solutions to the problem of world hunger. GM crops are faster and cheaper to grow therefore it will be possible to increase production and lower the cost of food. Besides, these crops could be grown in areas suffering from drought and salt. More than that, many people rely on genetically modified foods for medicines, for example insulin for diabetics. On the other hand, there is a possibility that introducing a gene into a plant may have an unexpected and negative impact on human health, for instance, it may create a new allergen and cause an allergic reaction in susceptible individuals. In addition, since some crops are modified using the DNA from viruses and bacteria, we may encounter new diseases. Moreover, GM crops may also pose a health risk to animals that eat them as they may be poisoned by built-in pesticides. In conclusion, I would like to say that many people feel that genetic engineering is the inevitable wave of the future and that we cannot afford to ignore a technology that has such enormous potential benefits. However, we must proceed with caution to avoid causing unintended harm to human health and the environment as a result of our enthusiasm for this powerful technology.
Nowadays lots of young people tend to move to cities in search of better life. On the contrary, many adults consider such a lifestyle quite dangerous for their children. Who is right? Is the life in the city really as harmful as it may seem? On the one hand, city life has lots of advantages. For example, it is often easier to get prestigious education and to find a well-paid job. Besides, there is a wider choice of shops, sports facilities and health centers. What is more, if you live in the city, you can eat in good restaurants, visit museums, and go to theatres or concerts. All in all, city lifestyle is full of variety so you will never feel bored. On the other hand, we must admit that city life is rather unsafe as there is a lot of crime and violence. What is more, transport and industry are the main reasons for all kinds of pollution there-fore city dwellers often have more problems with their health. Last of all, young people living in cities are likely to acquire such bad habits as smoking, drinking alcohol or even taking drugs. In conclusion, I think that city life has its pros and cons. However, if we try and solve the problems of crime and pollution, then living in the city will be really enjoyable. As for me, I would prefer to live in the city because I am keen on visiting theatres and don’t mind noise and pollution.
Art has lots of different forms. However, its evaluation has become especially problematic since the twentieth century when controversial art forms such as graffiti became popular. Although graffiti is often regarded as a new form of art worthy of display in galleries, its value is still highly contested. On the one hand, works produced by graffiti artists demonstrate a broad spectrum of personal and cultural expression therefore it is the way for people to express their talent. In addition, graffiti like any other art work takes vision, planning as well as lots of efforts. What is more, in many ways viewing graffiti art is very much like viewing contemporary art in a gallery and it is appreciated by many people. On the other hand, graffiti is often seen as vandalism because instead of canvas graffiti artists choose train cars, bridges or public walls, which makes our cities look really ugly and run-down. Moreover, most of the graffiti you see on walls is a collection of swear words, gang names or just silly drawings. For many people graffiti is often associated with crime and violence. To sum up, graffiti can be called an art form as long as artists get permission from those whose property might be used as canvas. In my opinion, people paint on public things because they have nowhere else to express their talent. I strongly believe city authorities should create special places for graffiti artists where all people will be able to appreciate this wonderful art form.
Many roads are open before school-leavers therefore it is not easy for them to make the right choice. Some students believe that it is necessary to get higher education whereas others prefer to earn money. On the one hand, it is better to continue our education and get the necessary knowledge for our future profession. At universities we learn how to learn so that we can make use of this ability in other more practical areas later on in life. Besides, if we have good qualifications, we will be able to find a highly paid job because every company needs well-qualified employees. Moreover, while studying at university, we can make lots of new friends and university life is usually interesting and exciting. However, many students take a gap year after school and start, working in order to find out what their interests are and choose their future career. Besides, they can get the necessary experience and it will be a useful introduction to the world of business. Many people nowadays follow the traditional start at the bottom and work your way up’ approach. What is more, they will earn money and become independent of their parents. In conclusion, I want to say that the final choice depends on the person’s attitude to education. Personally, I think that further education is very important and it is easier to study when you are young. So after finishing school I am going to enter a college or university and to continue my education.
Nowadays many people think they are too fat even if their doctors disagree. They think the best way to improve their fitness is following a diet. But is dieting really so effective and healthy? On the one hand, if you want to lose weight it is very important to keep your eye on what you eat. To begin with, you should cut out snacks and desserts, which add weight without boosting energy levels. Besides, you ought to cut down on fat as it is believed to be one of the major causes of obesity. Finally, you may count the number of calories you eat every day, which may substantially reduce the amount of food you eat and help to lose weight. On the other hand, strict dieting may be dangerous. Firstly, the lower the calories eaten per day, the harder it is to get the daily requirements of proteins and vitamins. In addition, excessive di-eting causes muscle loss and this loss may be from your heart with severe consequences. Moreover, dieting lowers your metabolic rate, so when you return to your normal food intake, you will put on weight even faster than before. To conclude, I believe that to stay healthy everybody should follow a sensible, well-balanced diet that gives their body exactly what it needs. However, I think the best way of keeping fit is doing sports. If you do regular exercise, you can eat and drink whatever you want because you are burning it all off.
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