Формирование навыков диалогической речи на английском языке


Формирование навыков говорения на уроках английского языка в средней школе.

Современная система обучения иностранному языку характеризуется тем, что практическое владение иностранным языком стало потребностью каждого образованного человека в связи с предъявляемыми к нему требованиями общества. Иностранный язык благотворно влияет на общий уровень культуры людей, способствует развитию коммуникации.

Формирование коммуникативной компетенции является основной и ведущей целью обучения иностранному языку. Сегодня это особенно актуально. Устное общение, роль которого в настоящее время стала особенно значительной, невозможно без хорошо развитого умения говорения. Согласно государственному стандарту обучения иностранному языку для базового уровня, для успешного общения ученик должен научиться вести диалог, используя оценочные суждения, в ситуациях официального и неофициального общения, беседовать о себе, своих планах; участвовать в обсуждении проблем в связи с прочитанным/ прослушанным иноязычным текстом, соблюдая правила речевого этикета; рассказывать о своем окружении, рассуждать в рамках изученной тематики и проблематики; уметь представлять социокультурный портрет своей страны и страны/стран изучаемого языка.

Основной целью обучения иностранному языку в школе в соответствии с требованиями, предъявляемыми обществом современному человеку, является формирование вторичной языковой личности, способной успешно осуществлять социальное взаимодействие с носителями иной культуры. Достижение данной цели невозможно без формирования у учащихся школ навыков говорения.

Выделяют два вида речи: диалогическую и монологическую.

1. Диалогическая речь – форма речи, при которой происходит непосредственный обмен высказываниями между двумя или несколькими лицами.

Особенности условий, в которых протекает диалогическая речь:

— краткость высказывания,

— широкое использование неречевых средств общения (мимика, жесты),

— большая роль интонации,

— разнообразие особых предложений неполного состава,

— свободное от строгих норм книжной речи синтаксическое оформление высказывания,

— преобладание простых предложений.

Основными этапами обучения диалогической речи на уроке являются:

— презентация ситуации с помощью словесного объяснения или технических средств обучения;

— презентация диалога в звуковой и графической форме;

— усвоение языкового материала диалога;

— усвоение способов связи реплик в диалоге;

— воспроизведение диалога;

— расширение возможностей диалога-образца за счет изменения компонентов ситуации.

При обучении диалогической речи рекомендуется варьировать различные виды диалогов и формы работы с ними: диалог-беседа, диалог-инсценировка, беседа учащихся между собой и с преподавателем, парная и групповая.

Основным средством обучения диалогической речи являются упражнения. В процессе их выполнения формируются умения: запрашивать информацию, адекватно реагировать на реплику собеседника, употреблять штампы диалогической речи, комбинировать реплики при построении диалога и др. В данной работе представлены такие виды упражнений.

Приложение 1

Кузовлев В.П. УМК 8 класс

Form 8. Unit 5. Changing Times, Changing Styles. What stories do museums tell?

Упражнения, направленные на развитие навыков диалогической речи

Teacher: React to the following statements. Work in a chain.

A. Agree, using : Oh, what a great idea! Why not? Oh, I`d love to! Wow! Super!

Teacher (to P1): Let`s go to the museum today!

P1: Oh, a good idea!

P1( to P2): I say, let`s go to the museum today.

P2 (to P1): Oh, what a good idea!

(to P3): I say, let`s go to the museum today.

P3 (to P2): Oh, what a good idea!

(to P4): Let`s go to the museum today.

Etc.

____________________________________________________

P1 (to P2): What about going to the museum today?

P2 (to P1): Why not?

Etc.

___________________________________________________

Teacher: Why don`t we go to the museum today?

P1: Oh, I`d love to!

P1 (to P2): Look here, why don`t we go to the museum today?

P2 (to P1): Oh, I`d love to!

(to P3): Look here, why don`t we go to the museum today?

Etc.

____________________________________________________

Teacher: Boys and girls! We are going to the State Tretyakov Gallery today!

P1: Great!

P2: Super!

P3: Oh, what a good idea!

_______________________________________________________

B. Disagree, using: You know, I don`t feel like going out tonight.

Sorry, I`d rather stay at home. Sorry, but I can`t.

Teacher: Look here, what do you say to going to the museum tonight?

P1: You know, I don`t feel like going out tonight.

P2 (to P3): Look here, what do you say to going to the museum tonight?

P3 (to P2): You know, I don`t feel like going out tonight.

Etc.

_________________________________________________________

Teacher: Let`s go to the museum tonight!

P1: Sorry, I`d rather stay at home.

P1 (to P2): Let`s go to the museum tonight.

P2: No, I`d rather stay at home.

Etc.

__________________________________________________________

Teacher: Fill in the gaps with the phrases: What`s not boring?

Some graffiti are fine, I agree. But I think a good modern painter should know classical art!

Again football, then computer games at Pete`s place!

Mark, would you like to join me and Jane to the National Gallery?

Susan: …

Mark: I am sorry, but I`m occupied tonight.

Susan: …

Mark: Frankly speaking, I`m not interested in classical paintings. They are boring!

Susan: …

Mark: I like graffiti. It`s the real art! It is not difficult to paint with a brush. Just try to do it with an aerosol paint. What do you think about it?

Susan: …

Mark: All right, Susan, I`m going out with you. Do you mind my inviting Pete?

B. Use: Congratulations, Atkins! You`ll have the chance to visit it again.

Anything else?

So, what can you see there?

Oh, no, Jill, that`s wrong!

I`m afraid you are wrong, Jack.

Kids, have you ever been to the “Spirit of London”?

Right you are! What events are shown there?

Teacher: …

Jack: I`ve heard about it.

Teacher: …

Jack: I believe it has a big display of all London ghosts!

Teacher: …

Jill: I know, sir! I suppose it displays wines and famous British spirits.

Teacher: …

Phil: Peter knows. He was there last month.

Peter: It`s about the history of London, sir!

Teacher: ..

Peter: Medieval London. Then the construction of St. Paul`s Cathedral. Next, the Plague and the Great Fire of London, the Battle of Trafalgar.

Teacher: …

Peter: As I remember then comes the reign of Queen Victoria. Finally the Battle of Britain in 1941 and London today.

Teacher: …

Teacher: Make your dialogues.

Invite your friend to the State Tretyakov Gallery and discuss your impressions.

You are in London and your friend invites you to the Tate Gallery. Ask some questions about the history of the Gallery and compare it with the State Tretyakov Gallery.

Discuss a visit to an exhibition of English landscape painters (J. Constable, J. Turner, T. Gainsborough). Compare with Levitan`s landscapes.

Invite your friend to the Vladimir Golden Gate Museum.

( to visit an exhibition, to share one`s impressions, to be interested in, to create, to be connected with, to attract one`s attention, the Mongol – Tatar invasion)

Приложение 2

Тренировка умения запрашивать и давать необходимую информацию.

Form 8. Unit 3. Traditions and manners.

Teacher: At different celebrations people are involved in different activities. What questions could you ask your British friend about British celebrations? Read the dialogue.

“Guy Fawkes Night”

P1: Do you know the history of this holiday?

P2: No, but I`d like to know.

P1: In 1605 King James I was on the throne. As a Protestant, he was very unpopular with Roman Catholic.

P2: I see, but who was Guy Fawkes and why is it celebrated on the 5th of November?

P1: Have some patience! I`m coming. So, some of the Roman Catholics planned to blow the Houses of Parliament on the 5th of November that year, when the King was going to open the Parliament. Under the House of Lords they stored thirty-six barrels of gunpowder which were to be exploded by a man called Guy Fawkes.

P2: How interesting! Did they manage to realize their plan? Were the Houses of Parliament blown up?

P1: No, one of the plotters spoke about a plan and Fawkes was discovered, arrested and later hanged. Sinse that day we traditionally celebrate the 5th of November by burning a dummy, made of straw and an old clothes, on a bonfire, at the same time letting off fireworks.

Teacher: Make your own dialogue and ask your English friend about any holiday

you like. Use Tag and assumption questions.

Teacher: What activities are the Russians involved in on their holidays?

Your English friend is interested in the Russian winter festival Shrovetide.

Answer his/her questions about the history of the festival, about the

traditional dishes and active outdoor pastimes.

Use:

( cook blinis, ride a troika, build a townlet, climb a pole for a gift, burn a strawman,

After dinner comes the reckoning – Не все коту масленица; make a strawman,

visit friends and relatives, say “Good bye” to winter, We shall see what we shall see —

Поживем – увидим.)

P1: People in Russia have rich traditions, don`t they?

P2: -_____________________________________.

P1: As far as I know you celebrate winter festivals widely. Why are they so popular?

Do you know the history of these festivals?

P2: ______________________________________ .

P1: I know one Russian proverb “After dinner comes reckoning”. Is it connected with the

Shrovetide? What does it mean?

P2: ______________________________________ .

P1: _____________________________________ ?

P2: We enjoy eating blinis, drinking tea just in the streets, riding troikas, some brave people

climb a pole for a gift.

P1: ____________________________________?

P2: No, I haven`t. I think I am not strong enough to climb a pole. But I hope to do it some

Shrovetide.

P1: Why do you burn a strawman? Does it have any sence?

P2: _____________________________________ .

P1: Thank you very much for your invitation. We shall see what we shall see. But anyway I`ll do my best to come and celebrate Shrovetide with you.

Teacher: Make your own dialogues.

Your English friend wants to get information about Christmas- tide (святки).

Answer his/her questions and compare it with Halloween.

Use:

( tell fortunes, wear fancy costumes, sing carols, a perfect living custom, is observed, etc.)

II. Match the phrases:

A.

1. What are you going to wear to Katya`s a) Really? I prefer your long green dress. It makes

party? you look very elegant.

2. Don`t you think jeans are bit casual to b) Oh, OK, then, but I feel more comfortable in

a party? jeans. What are you going to wear?

3. Yes. You look very stylish in a suit. c) Hmm. Maybe you are right. Do you think I

should wear a suit?

4. I think I am going to wear my short red d) I think I am going to wear my black jeans and

dress. a blue T-shirt.

5. Do you really think so? I`ll wear that, then.

B.

1. Hello, Brushstrokes Art Gallery. How can a) And what time do you open?

I help you?

2. Yes. We are open from Mondays to Fridays. b) That`s great. Thank you very much.

3. We open at 10 am and close at 4pm. c) Hello, could you tell me if the art gallery is

open on Mondays?

4. Four pounds for adults and two pounds fifty d) I see. How much is the entrance fee?

for children.

5. You are welcome. Goodbye.






See also:
Яндекс.Метрика